Adult social sites
Males often isolate themselves from the social community in order to engage in online gaming while females use the internet as to not be excluded from their communications online.
Mental health providers should be aware of the seriousness of internet addictions and hikikomori.
Regarding hikikomori trait, the subjects at high risk for hikikomori on HQ-25 had longer internet usage time and higher scores on both IAT and SAS-SV.
Correlation analyses revealed that HQ-25 and IAT scores had a relatively strong relationship, although HQ-25 and SAS-SV had a moderately weak one.
Dominance of the smartphone is more prominent in younger age groups compared to senior age groups.They were requested to complete the study questionnaire, which consisted of questions about demographics, internet use, the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS)–Short Version (SV), the 25-item Hikikomori Questionnaire (HQ-25), etc.We investigated the difference and correlation of the results between two groups based on the purpose of internet use or the total score of each self-rating scale, such as screened positive or negative for the risk of internet addiction, smartphone addiction, or hikikomori.The concept of hikikomori was first introduced to the public when a Japanese psychiatrist, Tamaki Saito, published a book in 1998 with the name in its title (30).
In his book Social Withdrawal (Shakaiteki Hikikomori), Saito defined hikikomori provisionally as “those who withdraw entirely from society and stay in their own homes for more than six months, with onset usually during the latter half of their twenties, and for whom other psychiatric disorders do not better explain the primary causes of this condition.” Since then, hikikomori has attracted the interest of researchers and a few epidemiological studies have been carried out in Japan.
It appears that adolescents and youth maintain their friendship primarily by communicating on the internet, especially young women.